A couple of fellow collectors asked me to add this section on SS Trapezoid cap insignia. I only own one SS Panzer cap with a Trapezoid (which I have noted below) so the other photos I've had to borrow from some of the militaria forums. Not all the styles are shown here as yet but these are the most common. There are some other variations of machine embroidered Trapezoids and at least one other Bevo design not pictured below. There are some fairly close fakes of some of these so you need to look closely at the details. No SS Trapezoid was ever done in aluminum wire.

Kimm, Nicolas & Christian Horn (2011): Nominal Associative Anaphors – A Text-Based Analysis at the Semantics-Pragmatics Interface. In: Iris Hendrickx, Sobha Lalitha Devi, António Branco, and Ruslan Mitkov (eds.): Anaphora Processing and Applications. Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence 7099. 108–118. Berlin: Springer.

The next question was one of law, namely, whether marriage with a woman of the lower nobility was equal for a member of an altgräflich family. Based on both the doctrine and practice at the time of marriage, the panel concluded that it clearly was in common law ( gemeines Recht ).  Did the house laws of Lippe specify stricter criteria?
The dispute hinged on the text of an agreement signed on August 14, 1749 between Friedrich Karl August and Friedrich Johann Ludwig, founders of the lines of Biesterfeld and Weissenfeld respectively.  Their grandfather had received Schwalenberg and Oldenburg as paragium, and the agreement transferred all rights to these domains to the eldest brother, turned them into a fideicommis inheritable by primogeniture, created entitlements for widows and daughters, and specified in paragraph 18:
Was nun Wir beyde Brüder in diesem Vergleich vor Uns pacisciret haben, das alles ist auch von Unsern Successionsfähigen Mänlichen Descendenten zu verstehen.  Und damit auch dieserhalben kein Streit unter Unsern Nacjhkommen erreget werde: So haben Wir festgestellt, daß, wenn jemand von Unsern Descendenten eine Person, welche nicht Gräflichen und geringern als Freiherrlichen Standes wäre, ehelichen würde, dessen und deren Söhne der Succession unfähig sein sollen.  Und könnten dergleichen Töchter oder solche Wittben oder eine Gräfliche Tochter, die sich unstrandesmäßig verheyrathet, dasjenige keineswegs fordern, was sonsten denen Wittben und Töchtern in nächstvorhergehenden §pho auf dort beschriebenen Fall assigniret ist, sondern solche Unstandesmäßige Wittben, Söhnen und Töchter müssen überhaupt mit geringeren Alimentis nach Zeit und Umständen ihres Vaters und Vettern zufrieden seyn.
There were three interpretations of this text:

  • the prince of Schaumburg-Lippe considered that this established a requirement of marriage within the upper nobility (understanding Freiherrlicher Stand to be Hochadel );
  • the count of Weissenfeld considered that this only required titled nobility;
  • the count of Biesterfeld accepted that it required titled nobility, but only for the purposes of the inheritance of the fideicommis created by the agreement of 1749 between the two brothers, not for membership in the Lippe dynasty; and that the agreement of 1749 became moot after the cession of the domains that composed the fideicommis to the senior line in 1762.
The panel agreed with the count of Biesterfeld, because paragraph 10 of the agreement stated explicitly that the agreement was "nur auf dasjenige, was Wir beide Gebrüdern von Unsers Herrn Vaters und Groß Herrn Vaters Gnd. Gnd. überkommen und ererbet haben, lediglich gerichtet, mithin von andern künftigen Successionsfällen ganz und gar nicht zu verstehen".


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